Graphene

Graphite (the mineral) consists of parallel sheets of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice, which when one or few atoms in thickness, are called graphene. Graphite therefore is made from graphene sheets and there are about 3 million layers of graphene in 1 mm of graphite. 


Graphene is everywhere you find graphite however separating graphite to a few atoms thick is expensive and hard to scale up. Main factors delaying uptake include: 

• production methods are not scalable enough supply large quantities for commercial uptake

• graphene production is prohibitively expensive

• lower cost scalable production exists however quality limits applications/markets.

Oil is a good analogy to graphene - it is present worldwide however fundamentals are required for commercial success.